Qinhuangdao Electric Power Museum is the first electric power theme museum in China based on the renovation of a century-old power house. It is also the first electric power museum in Hebei Province, which is located in No. 60 of Donggang Road, Haigang District, with an area of 44,000 square meters and a building area of 2,100 square meters, opened to the public free of charge in December 2015.
Qinhuangdao Electric Power Museum was formerly known as Qinhuangdao Power Plant of Kailuan Mining Bureau. Designed and built in 1928 by the electrical engineering workshop of Charleroi, Belgium, the plant was completed in 1929 to meet the needs of the electric locomotive transportation in the port and the expansion of the Qinhuangdao Yaohua Glass Factory. Because it is located in the northern slope of Nanshan Mountain in Qinhuangdao City, it is also known as “Nanshan Power Plant”.
Nanshan Power Plant is the earliest existing power generation site in Qinhuangdao City, consisting of the main plant, a high-voltage power distribution unit, fuel storage, north drainage facilities, auxiliary production and ancillary facilities, office and living areas, and is equipped with two Belgian 1000 kW generator sets with an annual power generation of 29.88 million kWh.
Nanshan Power Plant was shut down in 1979, and has been idle since then. In March 2013, it was listed among the 7th batch of key cultural relic protection units in China. In March 2015, the Qinhuangdao Power Supply Company of State Grid and the Bureau of Culture, Radio, Television, News and Publication of Qinhuangdao City, in line with the principle of “protecting cultural relics, repairing them as they were, inheriting history, and revitalizing”, carried out rescue repairs on the factory, and transformed it into the Electric Power Museum. In December 2018, it was listed among the 2nd batch of National Industrial Heritage by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology.
The Qinhuangdao Electric Power Museum has an exhibition area of 1,923 square meters, with more than 7,000 pieces of historical materials, pictures and physical exhibits, including five exhibition areas and one outdoor exhibition area: history of Chinese electric power development; history of power development in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region; history of power development in Qinhuangdao; global energy Internet; and social responsibility. The exhibits clearly show the history and current situation of the development of the power industry, systematically show the development history of power in China, in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and especially Qinhuangdao City, and spread the knowledge of power culture, integrating the cultural relics collection, exhibitions, social education, and academic research, into a symbolic cultural facility of the power system.
I. History of China’s Electric Power Development
This exhibition area mainly introduces the development of electric power in China in the more than one hundred years since the first electric lamp was lighted, including the evolution of the state power grid organization, and the milestone projects of China’s electric power development.
China usually defines the fifteen arc lamps lighted for public utility from the Bund of Shanghai to the Hongkou Investment Promotion Terminal in 1882 as the first electric lights in China. Thus, Shanghai was the first in China to use electricity. By 1903, Shanghai had formed the earliest urban power grid in China. The Nanshan Power Plant of Qinhuangdao also became well-known throughout the country, as the “No. 1 Power Plant” in Hebei Province in the Power Distribution Map of China published in 1948.
After the founding of New China, the first 2.5-kilowatt steam turbine generator set in China was put into operation in 1952 in Fuxin Power Plant, Liaoning Province. After the reform and opening up, China's first 500 kV transmission line was built across the Yangtze River in 1979. The Three Gorges Dam--the largest water conservancy project in the world was started in 1994. In 2002, the State Grid Corporation was established to support the dream of electricity for the rise of the powerful country. You can learn more about the No. 1 records in the history of China's electric power development by interactive flipping through an inductive e-book.
II. History of Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Power Development
This exhibition area mainly introduces the development of Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Power Grid, the evolution of the organization and the key work of Jibei Electric Power Co. Ltd.
The first lamp in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region was introduced by Li Hongzhang in 1888 and lit up in the palace of Empress Dowager Ci Xi. In order to guarantee the lighting of the court, the Beijing Xiyuan Electric Light Office was also established at that time.
It can be seen from the Geographical Wiring Diagram of Electric Power System of North China in 1949 that the voltage level at that time was 77 kV, and the power supply points were limited to Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan. After the founding of New China, the electric power industry developed rapidly, the number of power points has gradually increased, and 110 kV lines were gradually extended. In 1957, Chengde and Zhangjiakou were successively incorporated into the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Power Grid. In the 1960s and 1970s, the power optimization configuration began to take shape, and the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan grid with 220 kV lines as the main grid was initially formed. In 1964, Qinhuangdao was officially incorporated into the Beijing-Tianjin-Tang Power Grid, getting rid of the operation of the isolated network.
In the 1990s, with the rapid increase in power consumption in Beijing and North China, the power shortage situation became increasingly serious. Jibei Power Co., Ltd. of the State Grid focused on accelerating the transformation of development mode, and built the first demonstration base in the world for wind and solar storage and for transportation energy relying on the rich wind and solar resources advantages in Zhangjiakou.
Collection highlights (1)
There are thirty-three pieces of original design and blueprints of the Qinhuangdao Power Plant of the Kailan Mining Bureau drawn by the electrical engineering workshop of Charleroi, Belgium in 1928.
Collection highlights (2)
The original lamp umbrella was produced by the General Electric Company of the United States. There are 7 lamp umbrellas in the museum, which are well preserved and can still be used today.
Collection highlights (3)
Single-phase transformers produced in Osaka, Japan in 1944. This transformer is cooled by soybean oil and protected by insulation. It can still be used today.
Collection highlights (4)
Kailuan clinker tiles were used in the construction of the factory in 1928. These are a kind of fire mud tiles which was produced with a western technique and have a hard texture. It sold well both at home and abroad. The grounds of Shanghai Customs Building, the British and French Concession in Tianjin, and Hong Kong’s Kowloon Wharf were all paved with these tiles. The KMA engraved on each of the tile is the abbreviation of Kailan Mining Administration.
Collection highlights (5)
The magnetic wall skirt was used in the construction of the factory in 1928. These glazed tiles are still bright and beautiful after nearly a hundred years.
III. History of Qinhuangdao Electric Power Development
This exhibition area introduces in details the century-long development history of Qinhuangdao electric power from power plant construction, power supply line construction, through institutional changes. It also introduces the company's development history over the past two years. The “highlights of the collection /”are exhibited in this area.
The first lamp in the Qinhuangdao area was lit in 1912 at the Shanhaiguan Railway Station of Beining Railway Electric Light Factory. Since then, Qinhuangdao has a long history of using electric power.
The hand-painted architectural drawings and structural blueprints of Qinhuangdao Nanshan Power Plant drawn in 1925 are the “highlights of the collection” of the museum. These precious historical materials were preserved by the senior staff of Qinhuangdao Electric Power Company at risk to their lives.
Relying on these historical materials and old photographs of the 1930s, the museum restored the sand table of the Qinhuangdao area at that time, recreating the architectures of Nanshan Power Plant, Port Wharfs, Catholic Church, Yaohua Glass Factory and some buildings in the urban area.
Two electric locomotives introduced by Qinhuangdao Port in 1930, which used a 1000 volt DC power supply with a consumption of 900,000 kWh of electricity per year, consumed 1/3 of the power generated by the Nanshan Power Plant at that time. After the September 18th Incident in 1931, Japan began to implement a frenzied strategic resource plunder of Qinhuangdao. After Japan surrendered, Nanshan Power Plant was received by the National Government Assets Administration. The KMT planned to bomb out the port and the power plant before they retreated in 1948. Fortunately, the guardians protected them in advance, and the Nanshan Power Plant survived. In 1950, Qinhuangdao Office of Tangshan Branch of Jibei Power was officially renamed Qinhuangdao Power Plant. In 1953, Qinhuangdao Power Plant officially took over the Nanshan Power Plant, and changed its name to the Second Qinhuangdao Power Plant. In 1956, Qinhuangdao Power Plant was administrated directly by the Beijing Electric Power Bureau.
During the Tangshan earthquake in 1976, Qinhuangdao Power Plant took on the important task of transmitting electricity to the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Power Grid. At that time, the fifth train power station with a power generation capacity of 9000 kW was relocated to Qinhuangdao City, and the power generation was operating again less than one month after the earthquake, which made great contributions to earthquake relief and post-earthquake recovery.
After the reform and opening up, the Qinhuangdao power industry developed rapidly. In May 1981, Qinhuangdao Power Plant was officially renamed Qinhuangdao Electric Power Bureau, then Qinhuangdao Electric Power Company in December 2002. In 1992, the No. 1 Unit of Qinhuangdao Thermal Power Plant, the largest thermal power plant in Qinhuangdao, was completed and put into operation. In the following three years, the No. 2 and 3 Units were connected to the grid to generate electricity, creating a new chapter in the history of Qinhuangdao electric power.
IV. Energy Internet Exhibition Area
This exhibition area introduces the relevant knowledge of energy Internet, and the phased achievements made by China, Jibei Electric Power Co. Ltd. and Qinhuangdao Power Supply Company.
With the large-scale development and utilization of fossil energy, “three major challenges” of resource shortage, environmental pollution, and climate change have emerged. In order to cope with these “three major challenges”, human beings must vigorously implement “two alternatives”: clean substitution and electric energy replacement.
At the United Nations Development Summit in September 2015, China proposed a major initiative to build a global energy Internet. At present, the construction of the global energy Internet has been included in the frame works of “Belt and Road” construction, the UN 2030 sustainable development agenda, promoting the implementation of the Paris Agreement, enhancing global environmental governance, and addressing the problems of electricity shortage, poverty and diseases. The global energy Internet planning, top-level designs such as technology, equipment and standards have been completed.
The essence of the global energy Internet is “smart grid + UHV grid + clean energy”. The smart grid is the foundation, the UHV grid is the key, and the clean energy is the root. It can be divided into three stages: domestic interconnection, intra-continental interconnection, and intercontinental interconnection.
As a provincial power grid with all three elements of smart grid, UHV grid and clean energy grid, Jibei Company released the White Paper on the Development of Zhangjiakou Innovation Demonstration Zone of Global Energy Internet on May 13, 2016. The Zhangjiakou Demonstration Zone will focus on building five demonstration projects and five key projects to serve the economic and social development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the 2022 Winter Olympics. The Jibei company will complete the “four AC and four DC” UHV projects in the region during the 13th Five-Year Plan period.
In order to solve the problem of “weak ends” of the power grid, Jibei Company chose Qinhuangdao as the pioneer of intelligent distribution network construction. In accordance with the principle of “reference, replication, and promotion”, Qinhuangdao Company has built a modernized distribution network of “harmony and intelligence”. In the smart grid management, the “harmonious” management system was constructed to implement the efficient and coordinated operation of “four centers and four systems”.
V. Social Responsibility Exhibition Area
This exhibition area shows the enterprise spirit of the State Grid Corporation, the core values of the enterprise, team building, and volunteer service activities.
Qinhuangdao Power Supply Company earnestly implemented the requirements of the corporate culture construction of the State Grid Corporation and enhanced its soft power, integrating new technologies such as Internet+ and mobile Internet with ethics, emotions, and training, conducting multi-angle and dynamic information collection and management for employees with mobile phones as mobile data terminals, and striving to create talent team with high moral standards, strong emotional control, and excellent learning ability.
The company focuses on the talents, implements the Million Reward Program for Skilled Talents, and promotes the application of a large number of “five small” innovation and efficiency projects, and has achieved remarkable economic and social benefits.
In 2001, the company established the “Red Vest” youth volunteer service team. In 2009, the “Red Vest” was registered by the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, and became a famous service brand in Qinhuangdao. It works hard and won praise from the society.
VI. Old Photo Exhibition Area
Hundreds of the old and precious photos of the Qinhuangdao area during the Republic of China are collected here.
The exhibition photos are divided into four series: the Scenery of the Great Wall, City memory, Chinese-Western Blending, and Common People. It comprehensively introduces the customs of Qinhuangdao from the end of the 19th century to the early 20th century, recording the beautiful scenery of Qinhuangdao, the Great Wall, and the daily life of the port city in the past 100 years.
The Main building of the Power Plant in Baroque style
It was built in 1928, the wall is interspersed with curved and elliptical spaces, which is in the Baroque style and similar to the façade of the St. Paul’s Cathedral in Macau. It looks unrestrained and majestic.
Outdoor Exhibition Area
The South Outdoor Exhibition Area displays the century railway and upstream steam locomotives, and the North Area displays outdoor scenes of the transformer substation.
1. Century Railway
As early as in 1901, the earliest port locomotive maintenance workshop in Qinhuangdao was built here. Since then, the self-provided railway of the Qinhuangdao Port has been laid here. The track displayed now is 323 meters long with three old wooden pillows.
2. Upstream Steam Locomotive
This small-scale steam locomotive for industrial and mining production was produced by Tangshan Locomotive Factory in which more than 1,700 locomotives were designed and produced, and this is the No. 1033.
3. Transformer Substation
The transformer substation equipment of 10 kV, 110 kV and 220 kV are displayed here.
Take bus No. 8 and get off at Xigang Garden (Frontier Inspection Station).
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